Beijing Hongvadar Engineering Technology Co.
Beijing Hongvadar Engineering Technology Co.

Factors Affecting Lysine Requirements

1. Environmental factors affecting lysine requirement


The ambient temperature also has a certain influence on the feed intake of livestock and poultry. The lower the ambient temperature, the higher the feed intake, and vice versa. Therefore, under the condition of high ambient temperature, the requirement of lysine should be increased. Under the condition of low temperature, the demand should be lowered. The high temperature environment not only inhibits the feeding behavior of livestock and poultry, but also causes a series of heat stress responses. Such as febrile wheezing, respiratory alkalosis, and enhanced peroxidation in the body, etc., and will lead to the reduction of livestock and poultry production performance and change their carcass composition, which may promote the redistribution of nutrients in livestock and poultry, and change the nutritional requirements of livestock and poultry under heat stress conditions.


2. Animal factors affecting lysine requirement


(1) strain


Different types and strains of livestock and poultry have different genetic characteristics, and their growth rate, body size, carcass composition, egg production performance and digestive physiology are different, so their lysine supplement requirements are also different. The acid requirement is higher than that of the small strains of the same age.


(2)  The age and weight of livestock and poultry are different, and the requirements for amino acids are also different


The general trend was that lysine requirements decreased with age and body weight when expressed in terms of dietary concentration but when expressed in grams of lysine per bird per day, lysine requirements decreased. The amino acid requirement increases with age and body weight, that is, the relative requirement decreases and the absolute requirement increases. The requirement of lysine is also different between males and females. For optimal performance, males require higher lysine than hens. Other studies have come to similar conclusions. The reason for this phenomenon is that male carcasses contain more protein and higher protein content than hen carcasses. 


3. Dietary factors affecting lysine requirements


(1) Dietary energy and protein levels


Livestock and poultry adjust their feed intake to meet their energy needs, that is, "eat for energy". When the energy concentration of the diet is high, the feed intake of livestock and poultry decreases and vice versa. Therefore, dietary protein and essential amino acid concentrations should be adjusted according to dietary energy concentration. Dietary protein concentration also affects the requirements for various essential amino acids. The study found that the requirement of essential amino acids for livestock and poultry is correlated with the dietary protein level, and the two are in the same direction. In general, as dietary protein levels increase, essential amino acid requirements increase as a percentage of the diet. When dietary protein levels are reduced, growth is stunted due to deficiencies of single or multiple amino acids, resulting in lower individual amino acid requirements.


(2) Content and ratio of non-essential amino acids in the diet


Although the content of essential amino acids in feed is the most important factor in determining the nutritional value of protein, non-essential amino acids also play a role. An excess of non-essential amino acids provided by protein in the diet reduces the availability of essential amino acids. Since some essential amino acids can be used as precursors for the synthesis of specific non-essential amino acids, adequate provision of some non-essential amino acids in the diet can save the corresponding amount of essential amino acids.


(3) Utilization of feed lysine


The utilization rate of lysine of different feed materials is very different. Therefore, for different types of diets, the requirement of lysine is also an important indicator of the nutritional value of feed protein along with the utilization rate of amino acid. Determination has important implications. At present, the exploration of amino acid nutrition has gone deep into the research stage of available amino acid levels and formulating diets based on them.


(4) Other nutrients


Mineral elements, vitamins, antibiotics, choline, niacin, etc. in the diet will have a certain impact on the lysine requirement of livestock and poultry. In addition, adding betaine, carnitine, etc. to the diet will also affect the lysine requirement of livestock and poultry.

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